Definition of Homonyms, Homophones and Homographs

Definition of Homonyms, Homophones and Homographs
When communicating, of course everyone uses vocabulary a lot. A lot of vocabulary requires that a person often speaks. However, this situation has an influence on the development of language today.

Homonyms Homophones Homographs
Studying this, there needs to be deeper knowledge about the use of words, which are used more than one meaning and also know and understand the use of the same word but when someone says it gives a different meaning.
The problem is better known as matters relating to homonyms, homophones, homographs and polysemics. Besides this, besides knowing more deeply about the meaning or concept of homonyms, homophones, homographs. We must also know in distinguishing between homonyms, homophones, homographs and polysemics.

Definition of Homonym
Homonyms are types of words that have the same pronunciation and writing but have different meanings. The word which has a synonym has a meaning depending on the context of the sentence that follows it. Therefore, we still cannot decide whether that is the meaning of a word that is without a word without seeing it in a complete sentence form.
Surely we often hear the word Know of course, in our brain there are two meanings that cross in it so that we have not been able to decide whether the correct meaning of the word. But, if the word "know" has been put into a complete sentence like the one below, then we can identify the meaning of the word know.

Andi gives "tofu" to Ani to be cooked.
Andi told "Ani" that tomorrow he would go abroad.
The word tofu in the context of the first sentence has the meaning of a food made from soybeans. Whereas in the second sentence, the context of knowing means providing information.

Examples of Synonymous Sentences
One drop of snake King Cobra is believed to kill one African elephant.
The student council presidential election meeting was held in a tightly closed room.
The match entered the second round but Roni was beaten up by his opponents.
"Hit the cat with a broom!" Budi ordered me at one o'clock in the evening.

Definition of Homophones
Homophones are words that have the same sound but in different writing and meaning. In other words, words that have the same pronunciation have the same pronunciation even though they have different writing and meanings.

Slightly different from homonyms, words with a phonograph can be identified by looking at the form of the writing. But, if in oral form we must hear it in a complete sentence.
If we hear the word bank, there are two possible meanings, namely whether it is a place or a call for an older person. Therefore, we must hear it in a complete sentence.

Consider the following sentence !!
I met Bang Ari at the market yesterday.
I went to BCA Bank yesterday.
When we hear the word bang in the first sentence, the meaning is a call for older men. When we hear the second sentence, the meaning is a place for storing money.
Example of Berhomofon Sentences
POP Indonesian poet sings the song "rock" and the singer wears a "skirt" when acting on stage.
Sultan Abdulrahman "Shah" had "legitimately" become Siti Aisyah's husband yesterday.
The "conditions" put forward by Andi "full" will be fraudulent.

Definition of Homograph
The last variety of languages is homograph. Homographs are words that have the same writing but different pronunciation and meaning. Homographs are the opposite of homophones. Therefore, we cannot identify the meaning of words that have a homograph if we do not hear or read them in a complete sentence.
If we see the word doormat, then there are two things that cross our mind, whether they are adjectives or nouns.

Consider the following sentence!
You bought a new mat at the market yesterday.
My hands became doormats after washing dishes.
The word doormat in a first sentence which means a tool to clean feet or shoes from dirt. Whereas in the word doormat in a second sentence that is the state of the hands that are not smooth.

Examples of Monographed Sentences
The mentally ill child was struck by a motorcycle and "mentally" as far as 3 meters.
the commander ordered his soldiers to "attack" the drug dealer hiding place in the city of "Serang".
Before the morning "apple" is required to eat the "apple" first

Semantic Definition According to Experts

Semantic Definition According to Experts
Semantics Are - Definition, History, Types, Elements, Benefits, Analysis, Experts: Semantics in Indonesian comes from the Greek ‘sema’ (noun) meaning ‘sign’ or ‘symbol’. The verb is ‘semaino’ which means ‘mark’ or ‘symbolizes’. What is meant by signs or symbols here are linguistic signs (French: signé linguistique).

Semantic Definition
Semantics is a branch of linguistics that studies the meanings / meanings contained in language, codes, or other types of representations. In other words, semantics is the study of meaning. Semantics is usually associated with two other aspects: syntax, complex symbol formation from simpler symbols, and pragmatics, the practical use of symbols by people in certain contexts.

Semantic Definition According to Experts
Listed below are a number of opinions from various world experts on semantic understanding, including:

Charles Morrist
Stating that semantics examines "the relations of signs with objects which are the container for the application of these signs".

J.W.M Verhaar; 1981: 9
Argues that semantics (English: semantics) means the theory of meaning or theory of meaning, namely the systematic branch of language that investigates meaning or meaning.

Lehrer; 1974: 1
Semantics is the study of meaning. For Lehrer, semantics is a very broad field of study, because it also alludes to aspects of the structure and function of language so that it can be linked to psychology, philosophy and anthropology.

Kambartel (in Bauerk, 1979: 195)
Semantics assumes that language consists of structures that display meaning when related to objects in the experience of the human world.

Britannica encyclopedia (Encyclopedia Britanica, vol.20, 1996: 313)
Semantics is the study of the relationship between a linguistic differentiator and the relation of mental processes or symbols in speech activities.

Dr. Pateda mansoer
Semantics is a linguistic sub-discipline that discusses meaning.

Abdul Chaer
Semantics is the science of meaning or about meaning. Namely one of the 3 (three) levels of language analysis (phonological, grammatical and semantic).

KBBI (Big Indonesian Dictionary)
Semantics is the meaning, the intention of the speaker and writer, or the understanding given in a form of discussion.

History of Semantic Development
Semantics in the Indonesian language come from English semantics, from the Greek Sema (Nomina) ‘sign’: or from the verb samaino ‘mark’, ‘mean’. The term is used by linguists to refer to parts of linguistics that study meaning. Semantics is part of three levels of language that include phonology, grammar (morphology-syntax) and semantics.
The new semantic term emerged in 1984 which is known through the American Philological Association 'American philological organization' in an article entitled Reflected Meanings: A point in Semantics. The term semantics itself has existed since the 17th century when considered through the phrase semantics philosophy.
Semantic history can be read in the article "An Account of the Word Semantics (Word, No.4 th 1948: 78-9). Breal through his article entitled "Le Lois Intellectuelles du Language" revealed the term semantics as a new field of science, in French the term as historical historical science (historical semantics).
Historical semantics tend to study semantics associated with elements outside the language, such as changes in meaning with logic, psychology, etc. Breal's work is entitled Essai de Semanticskue. (end of the 19th century).
Reisig (1825) as one of the classical experts revealed a new concept of grammar (grammar) which included three main elements, namely etymology, the study of the origin of words related to changes in form and meaning; syntax, sentence structure in semasiology, sign (meaning).
Semasiology as a new science in 1820-1925 was not yet realized as semantics. The term Semasiologi itself is a term put forward by Reisig. Based on Resigh's thinking, semantic development can be divided into three growth periods, namely:

The first period, covering half a century, included reisig activities; then this is called Ullman as the 'Undergound' period.
The Second Period, namely semantics as a purely historical science, the existence of historical semantics, with the emergence of the classic work Breal (1883)
The third development period, the study of meaning was marked by the emergence of the work of Swedish philologist Gustaf Stern (1931) entitled "Meaning and Change of Meaning with Special Reference to the English Language Stern conducted an empirical study of meaning.

Semantic Benefits For Language Researchers
Below are three semantic benefits, including:
For a journalist, reporter, or people working in the world of news and reporting:
They will get practical benefits from knowledge about semantics, which can make it easier to choose and use words with the right meaning in conveying information to the public.

The term is enhanced by Kridalaksanan that the process of searching for language symbols that serves to describe objects, concepts, processes and so on. In addition, naming is used for existing assets, among others, by changing the possibility of meaning or by the creation of words or groups of words.

For language researchers:
For literary students, semantic knowledge will provide many theoretical provisions to analyze the language being studied.
As for literary teachers, semantic knowledge will provide theoretical and practical benefits. Theoretically, semantic theories will help in better understanding the language that will be taught. And the practical benefit is the ease of teaching it.

For ordinary people:
The use of the basics of semantics is certainly still needed to be able to understand the world which is full of information and linguistic traffic that continues to grow.

Historical, Logic and Structural Semantics

Historical, Logic and Structural Semantics
Historical semantics is the study of semantics that examines systems of meaning in time series. This historical semantic study emphasizes the study of meaning in the span of time, not the change in word form. Changes in word form are studied more in hoistorical linguistics.
The origin of the word becomes part of the etymology study. This semantic compares words based on periods or between words at a certain time with words in other languages. For example in BI there is the word rice and in Javanese there is the word pari. The phonemes / d / and / r / correspond.

Semantic Logic
Sematic logic is a branch of modern logic that deals with symbolic concepts and notations in semantic language analysis. Logic examines systems of meaning as seen from logic as applicable in mathematics referring to the word study of meaning or interpretation of teachings, especially those formed in the logic system by Carnap is called semantics.
In the semantics of logic discussed the meaning of proxies that are distinguished from sentences, because different sentences in the same language can be uttered in the same proportion. Instead, a sentence can be said in two or more proportions. Proportions can be right or wrong, and symbols are referred to as proportional variables in logic semantics.

Structural Semantics
Structural semantics stems from the views of structural linguists pioneered by Saussure. Structuralists argue that every language is a system, a unique structural relationship consisting of units called structures. The structure is transformed into elements in the form of phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and discourses which divide them into phonological studies, morphology, syntax, and discourse.

Semantic Scope
As stated that semantics covers a very broad field, both in terms of structure and function of language and in terms of interdisciplinary fields of science (Fatimah, 2009: 4). But in this case the scope of semantics is limited to the relationship of meaning itself in the field of linguistics.

Nonlingistic factors also influence semantics as a function of non-symbolic language. Semantics is the study of a language differentiator with the relationship of mental processes or symbolism in speech activities (Tarigan, 2004: 5).
The relationship between language and mental processes can be stated in several ways. Some mental processes experts do not need to be studied because they are confusing, some states that mental processes must be studied separately from semantics, or semantics are studied without mentioning mental processes.
In reality, semantics or meaning is closely related to structure and function. It means that structure without meaning and manka without structure cannot exist. So the form or structure, function and meaning is a unity in researching or studying the elements of language.
From the existence of a number of levels and complexities it is understandable that although the meanings and symbols as well as the semantic and grammatical aspects are inseparable elements, in determining semantic and linguistic relations there are still a number of differences. There are reviewers who prefer to mention semantics with the theory of meaning and put it directly into the field of language philosophy (Aminuddin, 2001: 27).
On the other hand there are also reviewers who assume that as long as the abstraction and process of relations and combinations, meaning is still abstract, so empirical studies and scientific study results are not possible to be carried out and achieved.

Semantic Elements
Below are three semantic elements, including:
1. Signs and Symbols (Symbols)
Signs and symbols (symbols) are the two elements contained in the language. The sign was developed into a theory called semiotics. Semiotics has three aspects related to linguistics, namely syntactic aspects, pragmatic aspects, semantic aspects.

2. Lexical and Referential Relations
The lexical element is the smallest unit in the linguistic meaning system where its existence is distinguished by other smallest units. Lexical meaning is a category and synchegematic where all words and implications, scientific groups with structural meanings must be defined in units of construction. Whereas in a referential relationship is the relationship that exists between a word and the world that is outside the language intended by conversation.

Semantic Analysis

Semantic Analysis
In semantic analysis, language is unique and has a close relationship with the culture of the speaker community. So, an analysis of results in a language, cannot be used to analyze other languages.

For example English speakers who use the word ‘rice’ in English that represent rice, rice, grain and rice.
The word 'rice' will have different meanings in each of the different contexts. Can mean rice, rice, grain, or rice.
Of course English speakers only know 'rice' to refer to rice, rice, grain, and rice. That is because they do not have the culture of processing rice, grain, rice and rice, like the Indonesian people.
Another difficulty in analyzing meaning is the fact that not always the markers and referents have a one-on-one relationship. Which means, every linguistic sign doesn't always have only one meaning.
Occasionally, one linguistic sign has two or more references. And conversely, two linguistic marks, can have one common reference.

The relationship can be illustrated with the following examples:
example of semantic analysis
Semantic Types
Below there are several types of semantics, including:
1. Behaviorist Semantics
Behaviorist adherents have a general attitude: (1) Behaviorist adherents are not too sure about terms that are mentalistic in the form of mind, concept, and idea: (2) there is no essential difference between human and animal behavior: (3) prioritizing learning factors and are not sure of innate factors: and (4) the mechanism or its determination.
Based on the sketch the meaning is in the range between stimulus and response, between stimulus and answer. The meaning is determined by the situation which means determined by the environment. Therefore, meaning can only be understood if there is observable data in the environment of human experience. Example: a mother who feeds food on sibayi.

2. Descriptive Semantics
Descriptive semantics are semantic studies that specifically show the current meaning. The meaning of the word when it first appears. Not noticed. For example, in Indonesian there is the word champion, the person who gets the highest ranking in a match without regard to the previous meaning, which is the regulator or the divorce in the chicken union. So, descriptive Semantics only pay attention to the present meaning.

3. Generative Semantics
Famous concepts in this flow are: (1) competence, namely the ability or knowledge of the language understood in communication: (3) the external structure, namely the language elements in the form of words or sentences that sound like: and (4) inner structure, namely the meaning that is in the outer structure. This flow became famous with the emergence of Chomsky's book in 1957 which was later updated.
Generative semantic theory emerged in 1968 because of linguist dissatisfaction with Chomsky's opinion. In their opinion semantic structures and syntactic structures are homogeneous. The inner structure is not the same as the semantic structure.
To relate it is illustrated by one rule, namely transformation. This theory arrives at the conclusion that grammar consists of an internal structure that contains nothing but a semantic structure and an outer structure which is an embodiment of the utterances of these two structures connected by a process called transformation.

4. Grammatical Semantics
Grammatical semantics is a simultaneous study which specifically examines the meaning contained in sentence units. Verhaar says Grammatical Semantics is much more difficult to analyze. To analyze the sentence still sitting, brother is already sleeping not only interpreted from the words that make it up. One must interpret the entire contents of the sentence as well as what is behind the sentence. A word will change its meaning when placed or combined with other words.

5. Lexical Semantics
Lexical semantics is a more satisfying simultaneous study in the discussion of the meaning systems contained in words. Lexical semantics are not very difficult. A dictionary is a good example of lexical Semantics: the meaning of each word is described there. So, lexical semantics pays attention to the meaning contained in word sentences as independent units.

Semantics is Expressly Stated as the Science of Meaning

Semantics is Expressly Stated as the Science of Meaning
Semantics is expressly stated as the science of meaning, only in the 1990s with the emergence of Essai de semanticue from Breal, which was then followed by the work of Stern in the next period. However, before the birth of Stern's work, in Geneva published material, a collection of lectures from a language instructor, which determined the next linguistic development, namely Ferdinand de Saussure, entitled Cours de Linguistikue General. Saussure's view becomes a view of structuralism.
According to de Saussure's structuralism, language is a system consisting of interconnected elements and is the whole unified. This view is then used as a starting point for research, which strongly influences various fields of research, especially in Europe.
The semantic view then differs from the previous view, after de Saussure's work appeared. The different views include:

Historical views are becoming obsolete
Attention is being left to the structure in the vocabulary,
Semantics began to be influenced by stylistics
Focused semantic studies on specific languages (not common anymore)
The relationship between language and thought began to be studied, because language is a force that determines and directs the mind (attention to the development of this idea towards SapirWhorf, 1956, the mirror language of the nation).
Semantics has freed itself from philosophy, but that does not mean philosophy does not foster semantic development (note also the existence of philosophical semantics which is a branch of symbolic logic.
In 1923 the book The Meaning of Meaning appeared by Ogden & Richards which emphasized the relationship of three basic elements, namely the 'thought of reference' (thought) as an element that presents a certain meaning that has a significant relationship with the referent (reference). The mind has a direct relationship with the symbol (symbol). The symbol does not have a direct relationship with the symbol (symbol).

The symbol does not have an arbitrary relationship. With regard to meaning, semantic experts usually determine the fact that the meaning of the word meaning (noun) from to mean (verb) contains a lot of different meanings. Leech (1974) states that semantic experts often improperly think of 'the meaning of meaning' required for the introduction of semantic studies.
They actually tend to explain semantics in relation to other sciences; the experts themselves are still debating that the meaning of language cannot be understood or cannot be developed except in the nonlinguistic meaning.

Semantic Relations with other Social Sciences
Unlike the level of analysis of other languages, semantics is a branch of linguistic science that has a relationship with social science, such as sociology and anthropology. Even with philosophy and psychology.

Semantics and Sociology
Semantics are related to sociology because there is often the fact that the use of certain words to say something can mark the identity of a group of speakers.

Example :
The use / selection of the words 'girl' or 'woman' will show the identity of the speaker group.
The word 'girl' is identical to the group of young people, while the word 'woman' seems more polite, and identical to the group of parents who promote modesty.

Semantics and Anthropology
Semantics is considered to have an interest in anthropology because the analysis of meaning in a language, through the choice of words used by its speakers, will be able to promise a practical classification of the cultural life of its speakers.

Example :
The use / selection of the words 'slurred' or 'sluggish' which both means 'hungry' can reflect the culture of the speaker.
Because the word 'ngelih' is a term for 'hungry' for the people of Jogjakarta. While the word 'lethargic' is a term for 'hungry' for the people of Jombang area.

The Purpose of International Relations

The Purpose of International Relations
To spur economic growth in each country
To create mutual understanding between nations in fostering and establishing a peace
To create justice and prosperity for all people in the world
To establish an international relationship between the countries concerned.
To establish a cooperation in the political, economic, social and cultural
To meet the needs of its citizens
To open up opportunities in marketing domestic products abroad
To facilitate an economic relationship between countries.
Benefits of international relations
for Indonesia, among others are:

The benefits of ideology, namely to maintain and sustain the survival of the nation and state;
Political benefits, namely to support the implementation of political policies and foreign relations dedicated to the national interest, especially for the benefit of development in all fields;
Economic benefits, namely to support efforts to increase national economic development;
Socio-cultural benefits, namely to support efforts to foster and develop the socio-cultural values of the nation in an effort to overcome any forms of threats, challenges, obstacles, disturbances and international crime, in the context of implementing national development;
Benefits of international peace and security, namely to support efforts to maintain and restore international peace, security and stability;
Humanitarian benefits, namely to support efforts to prevent and deal with each form of disaster and the rehabilitation of its consequences;
Another benefit is to improve the role and image of Indonesia in international forums and relations between countries and the trust of the international community. "

Principle of International Relations
According to Hugo de Groot, stated that state relations will create equality between the countries involved in it, and realize a common interest for progress. In international relations, it is known by several principles which are based on regions and a scope of enactment of legal provisions for regions and their respective citizens.
There are three principles in international relations that influence each other, namely as follows:

1. Territorial Principle
The territorial principle is based on a state's power over its territory. In this principle, all citizens and all items in their territory are governed by a state law. So, for something outside its territory, an international law will apply.

2. Nationality Principle
The principle of nationality is based on a state's authority to protect its citizens. In this principle, a law of his country will apply to every citizen wherever he is. So this principle will apply even if citizens are in a foreign territory (not the territory of their country).

3. Principle of Public Interest
This principle is based on the authority of the state to protect and adhere to an interest in community life. In this principle, the State can adjust to all circumstances and an event that has to do with the public interest. So this principle is not bound to the boundaries of a country's territory.
These three principles are very calculated in establishing an international relationship. Because without these three principles a variety of international chaos will arise, therefore the relationship of a country and other countries must have a rule in the form of international law.

Pattern of International Relations
The pattern of relations between nations has 3 kinds, namely:
Colonialism of a nation over another nation, dependence of a nation on the direction of other nations and equal relations.

1. Colonialism
Colonialism is essentially a exploitation by one nation over another nation which is caused by a development of capitalist understanding, in which the invaders' corners will need raw materials for their industries and / or markets for their industrial products. The essence of colonialism here. that is a control over the territory of another nation.

2. Pattern of Dependency
This one pattern usually occurs in a developing country that lacks capital and technology to develop a country, forced to rely on an assistance of developed countries whose results will result in dependence on these developed countries. This one pattern of relationship is also known as neo-colonialism (colonialism in a new form).

3. Equal Relationship Patterns
This one relationship pattern is the most difficult to realize, but a very ideal relationship pattern because it strives to achieve mutual prosperity, in accordance with the second precepts of the Pancasila, which demands a respect for the direction of human nature as equal beings regardless of an ideology, form of state or system his government.

Definition and Purpose of International Relations

Definition and Purpose of International Relations
In establishing a relationship not only among individuals, but it can be a group or country that can establish a relationship between countries. On this occasion here will be a complete review of international relations. Therefore, let us consider the review below.

Definition of International Relations
International relations or relations between nations is a human interaction between nations both individually and in groups, which is carried out either directly or indirectly and can be in the form of friendship, dispute, hostility or war.

Understanding International Relations According to Experts
1. Sincere Warsito
According to Tulus Warsito revealed that international relations is a study of the interaction of foreign politics from several corners.

2. Drs. R. Soeprapto
According to Soeprapto, international relations is a specialization that integrates other branches of knowledge that study the international aspects of human social life.

3. Kenneth Watts. Thompson
According to Kenneth revealed that international relations is a study of a rivalry between nations and the conditions and institutions that improve or worsen a rivalry.

4. J.C. Johari
According to Johari, international relations is a study of an interaction which takes place between sovereign states, besides that it is also a study of non-state actors whose behavior has a joint impact on the tasks of the State.

5. Couloumbis and Wolfe
According to Couloumbis and Wolfe revealed that international relations is a systematic study of phenomena that can be observed and try to get a basic variable to explain behavior and reveal a characteristic or types of relationships between social units.

6. Mochtar Mas’oed
According to Mochtar revealed that international relations is a relationship that is very complex because in it there is / involved a nation that each sovereign which thus requires a more complicated mechanism for relations between groups.

7. Jeremy Bentham
According to Jeremy Benham, international relations is a science which is a unified discipline and has a scope and basic concepts.

8. John Lewis Gaddis
According to John Lewis Gaddis revealed that international relations is a field of study that is useful for a statesman in a way to build a better world.

9. Ishaq Rahman
According to Ishaq Rahman stated that international relations is a science that is identified with a relationship between countries.

10. Couloumbis
According to Couloumbis revealed that international relations is a science that studies a pattern of action and reaction between sovereign states in which the behavior of the government elite is an indicator.

Understanding Executive Institutions in General And Examples
The Executive Institution is a government agency that has a power and responsibility in implementing the law. For example, usually in an executive institution called the chairman of the government. The executive can point to administration, to the president's system, or as an order, within the parliamentary system.
Executive (from Latin), execure which means to carry out or do. Executive power is generally held by the executive body. In democratised countries, executive bodies are generally from heads of state such as kings or presidents. The executive body in the broadest sense also includes civil servants and the military.

Executive agency
In the presidential system the ministers are petrified by the president and are elected by the president as well, whereas in the parliamentary system the ministers are led by a prime minister.

The type of executive institution is divided into two, namely:
Hareditary Monarch is a government whose headship is chosen based on descent.
An example is Britain by electing a head of state from a royal family.
Elected Monarch is the head of state generally elected by a legislative body or an electoral body.

The Executive Institution System is divided into two:
Parliamentary Governing System. Separate heads of state and heads of government. The head of government is led by the prime minister, and the head of state is led by the president. But the head of state here only has a function as a symbol in a sovereign state.
Presidential presidential system. Heads of government and heads of state are both held by the president.
Example of the Executive Board

Parliamentary System with Parliamentary Executive
Parliamentary system is a system of government whose parliament has an important role in governance.
Example: England

The power of a king is symbolic. The real power is in the hands of the prime minister who leads the ministers.
The life span of a cabinet depends on support in the legislature.
Two political parties are very dominant, namely the labor party and the conservative party, so that the party that wins in an election can expect majority support in parliament, while in the opposition party there is only one that is more prominent.
A Presidential System with a Fixed Executive or Non-Parliamentary Executive
Example: United States

The executive board consists of the president and his ministers who are presidential aides. The president is called the Chief Executive
The term of office is 4 years, can be extended by eight years if re-elected.

Government system
Presidential system
Parliamentary system
Semipresidential system